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Hydrochloric Acid



Hydrochloric Acid
Chemical FormulaHCl
Formula Weight36.46
Equivalent Weight36.46 (Molar = Normal)
CAS No.7647-01-0

Hydrochloric Acid is a strong acid in terms of chemical ionization, and solutions of it can be assayed with a standardized solution of a strong base, such as Sodium Hydroxide. The endpoint can be determined potentiometrically or by using a pH indicator.

The selection of the indicator used depends on the initial concentration of the Hydrochloric Acid and the strength of the alkali used. This is due to the fact that the Normalities of the acid and the base affect the shape of the neutralization curve that results during the titration.

When both acid and base are 1 Normal in concentration, indicators with effective ranges between pH 3 and 10.5 can be used. Suitable indicators include Methyl Orange, Bromocresol Green, Methyl Red, Methyl Purple, Bromothymol Blue, Phenol Red, Phenolphthalein and Thymolphthalein.

When both the acid and base are 0.1 Normal, the ideal pH range is reduced to 4.5 to 9.5. Thus, Methyl Orange and Thymolphthalein are not as suitable as the others.

With 0.01 Normal solutions, the ideal pH range is further limited to 5.5 - 8.5.

A basimetric standard such as Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane can also be used to standardize Hydrochloric Acid solutions.

A 1 Normal solution of Hydrochloric Acid contains approximately 83 mL of concentrated Hydrochloric Acid per liter.

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